Existing India

India, officially known as the Republic of India, is a South Asian country located on the Indian subcontinent. It is bordered by Pakistan to the northwest, China and Nepal to the north, Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. To the south, it is bounded by the Indian Ocean, and to the west by the Arabian Sea. India’s geographical coordinates are approximately 20.5937° N latitude and 78.9629° E longitude.

Geography

Climate:

India’s climate varies significantly from region to region due to its vast size and diverse topography. The country experiences a wide range of climatic conditions, including tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and arid climates. The Himalayas in the north act as a barrier to cold winds, making the northern region colder than the rest of the country.

Fauna:

India is home to a diverse range of wildlife, including Bengal tigers, Indian elephants, Indian rhinoceroses, Asiatic lions, and various species of deer and antelope. The country also boasts a rich avian fauna, with numerous species of birds found in its forests, wetlands, and grasslands.

Longest Rivers:

India is blessed with several major rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Godavari, and Krishna. The Ganges, originating from the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas, is the longest river in India and holds immense cultural and religious significance.

Highest Mountains:

The highest mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which includes several of the world’s highest peaks, such as Mount Everest, Kanchenjunga, and Nanda Devi. Mount Everest, located on the border between Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim, is the highest peak in the world, standing at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet) above sea level.

History

Prehistory:

India has a rich prehistoric heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back to the Paleolithic Age. The Indus Valley Civilization, one of the world’s earliest urban civilizations, flourished in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent around 3300–1300 BCE.

Ancient India:

Ancient India saw the rise and fall of several powerful dynasties, including the Maurya, Gupta, and Chola empires. It was during this period that significant advancements were made in science, mathematics, literature, and art, contributing to India’s cultural and intellectual heritage.

Medieval Period:

The medieval period in India was marked by the arrival of Islamic rulers and the establishment of several Muslim sultanates and empires, such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. This period witnessed the synthesis of Indian and Islamic cultures, resulting in the flourishing of art, architecture, and literature.

British Rule:

In the 17th century, the British East India Company established trading posts in India, eventually gaining control over the entire subcontinent. India remained under British rule until gaining independence in 1947, following a prolonged struggle for freedom led by Mahatma Gandhi and other prominent leaders.

Modern India:

Since gaining independence, India has emerged as the world’s largest democracy and a rapidly developing economy. The country has made significant strides in various fields, including technology, education, and healthcare, while also facing challenges such as poverty, corruption, and environmental degradation.

Demographics

India is the second-most populous country in the world, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. The population is diverse, comprising various ethnicities, languages, religions, and cultures. Hindi is the most widely spoken language, followed by English and numerous regional languages. Hinduism is the predominant religion, followed by Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

Administrative Divisions

India is divided into 28 states and 8 Union territories. Each state and Union territory is further subdivided into districts and smaller administrative units. The administrative divisions of India, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Uttar Pradesh – Population: 224 million
  2. Maharashtra – Population: 124 million
  3. Bihar – Population: 121 million
  4. West Bengal – Population: 100 million
  5. Madhya Pradesh – Population: 84 million
  6. Tamil Nadu – Population: 78 million
  7. Rajasthan – Population: 77 million
  8. Karnataka – Population: 67 million
  9. Gujarat – Population: 63 million
  10. Andhra Pradesh – Population: 53 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

India’s largest cities by population include:

  1. Mumbai
  2. Delhi
  3. Bangalore
  4. Hyderabad
  5. Ahmedabad
  6. Chennai
  7. Kolkata
  8. Surat
  9. Pune
  10. Jaipur

Education Systems

Education in India is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution. The country has a vast network of schools, colleges, and universities, both public and private. Primary education is free and compulsory, and the government has implemented various initiatives to promote literacy and improve access to education. Some of the top universities in India include the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), and the University of Delhi.

Transportation

Airports:

India has a large network of airports, with major international airports in cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, and Chennai. The country has over 100 operational airports, facilitating domestic and international air travel.

Railways:

India has one of the largest railway networks in the world, operated by Indian Railways. The total length of the railway network is over 67,000 kilometers (41,600 miles), connecting various parts of the country.

Highways:

India has an extensive network of highways and expressways, with the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) overseeing their development and maintenance. The total length of national highways in India is over 142,000 kilometers (88,000 miles), making it one of the largest road networks globally.

Ports:

India has several major ports, including the Port of Mumbai, Port of Chennai, and Port of Kolkata. These ports play a crucial role in facilitating trade and commerce, handling a significant portion of the country’s cargo traffic.

Country Facts

  • Population: Over 1.3 billion
  • Capital: New Delhi
  • Official Language: Hindi
  • Religion: Hinduism (majority), Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism
  • Currency: Indian Rupee (INR)
  • ISO Country Code: IN
  • International Calling Code: +91
  • Top-Level Domain: .in