Cuba Economic and Social Development

By | November 14, 2021

Mineral resources

The Cuban territory has important solid mineral resources. In relation to the diversity and magnitude of the reserves, the metallic mineral deposits include iron, nickel and cobalt bearing laterites, as well as some gold and polymetal deposits. In the past, iron, manganese, chromium, zinc and silver were exploited, among others; But at this time, existing reserves are generally of limited economic importance.

Regarding industrial or non-metallic minerals, deposits of about 65 varieties are known in Cuba, which occur in more than 600 deposits or deposits and more than 900 potentially useful sites. Among these, the most common deposits are carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites and marble limestones) and rocks of volcanic origin (zeolitic tuffs, basalts, andesites and tuffs). There are also important metamorphic resources (marbles and calcareous schites). It is followed in order of importance by deposits of rock salt, clays, polycomponent sands., quartz sands and bentonite. Resources are known – of different origin and less important – of asphaltites and bitumens, kaolins, feldspar, phosphorite, barite, gypsum, volcanic glass, quartz, magnesites, micas, paligorskite, silicites, wollastonite, asbestos, opals, garnets, graphite, kyanite and quartzites. The main mineral materials have a practical nature, proven by their exploitation and their use in the country’s economy.

Oil and natural gas

Oil has been exploited in Cuba since 1881 when a naphtha well was discovered near Motembo. Until 1960 very limited exploratory activity led to the discovery of some small fields. As new fields have been discovered, exploration has increased and new technologies have been incorporated. The largest field (Varadero) has an estimated reserves of more than 2 billion barrels.

Since 1994, many oil exploration wells have been drilled, among which those located in the northern province have been more productive or with prospects [48] . Starting in 1999, the Cuban government made the decision to open its Exclusive Economic Zone of the Gulf of Mexico to oil exploration. Geophysical investigations demonstrated the high potential of the area and the results of the wells drilled by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) show that there is an active oil system there.

Social policy

As a country located in Caribbean according to Directoryaah, the Republic of Cuba, divided into fifteen provinces and 168 municipalities, is governed by the provincial and municipal assemblies of the People’s Power, which are elective bodies made up of delegates, elected by universal, direct and secret vote, who in turn elect the councils of the administration in both instances. [49] At the national level, the highest legislative body is the National Assembly of People’s Power.

Social policy allows guiding and promoting social development. It includes the social objectives and the ways selected to achieve them. Social policy is established by the State, in accordance with the socialist character of Cuban society. This guarantees its priority, integrality and continuity over time. Along with state action, there is a broad participation of non-governmental organizations and the population in the achievement of social objectives.

Among the main objectives of social policy in Cuba are:

  • Access to a basic diet;
  • Ensure the citizen’s right to health and education;
  • adequate income for those who retire or require economic support from society;
  • Sources of employment; protection and rest of the worker;
  • A comfortable home, preferably your own;
  • Achieve a progressively fairer and more caring society.

The pathways established to achieve the above objectives are:

  • Distribution of more than 60% of the caloric intake of the diet through social channels, such as the rationing system at low prices; a popular food network for low-income people; free food or at very low prices through health, education and other centers.
  • Universal and free access to health and education services, including university education; and in the case of health, the most complex and expensive medical treatments. Allocation of financial and human resources necessary to ensure quality services.
  • Universal coverage of social security and social assistance. Articles 47 and 48 of the Constitution establish that no citizen can be left helpless.
  • Promotion of economic development as the main source of job creation; employment programs in deficit regions and for disabled people. Gradual restructuring of employment by resizing capabilities, with relocation or income guarantees for surplus workers.
  • Reduction of rents; acquisition of the dwelling by means of a payment equivalent to the rent; state homebuilding programs and self-help programs; low cost housing alternatives; state-supported home repair.

Additionally, it should be added that social progress is conceived in a multifaceted and broad way, so that development and broad access to culture, sports, recreation and rest for workers also contribute to it.

Social policy in Cuba aspires to guarantee not only equal opportunities, but also equal results. The social policy implemented has considered a specific and differentiated treatment for certain segments of the population such as families with lower incomes, women, children, single mothers, the elderly and the disabled, as well as the territories with less relative development.

The priority given to social development and the active nature of the applied social policy, allowed Cuban society to achieve in a short historical period the elimination of the great social and territorial differences; the eradication on a social scale of negative phenomena such as malnutrition and rickets, illiteracy, homelessness and poverty; as well as allowed to achieve high rates of social development in essential issues such as health and education, comparable to those of developed countries.

Economic and social development relationship

There is a close interrelation between economic development and social development. Economic development allows raising the standard of living of the population and provides the necessary resources to satisfy social needs.

For its part, social policy must ensure that economic development has the most direct impact on social development, and that its fruits are distributed fairly in society.

In the case of Cuba, the resources allocated to social programs are not considered as a simple expense, but as the satisfaction of a priority objective of society. On the other hand, social development has a strong influence on economic development, by promoting an increase in the qualification of the workforce, raising their health levels, encouraging the incorporation of women into work and favoring a spontaneous planning policy. family.

From the Triumph of the Revolution and until 1989, there was a consolidation of Cuba’s social development model, with achievements that were close to the social indicators of countries with a higher income level.

At the beginning of the 90s, with the disappearance of the socialist camp, a fall in GDP of around 35% took place, with strong repercussions on the economic and social order. However, the priority given to social programs made it possible to preserve most of the achievements made, and even to continue advancing in a series of social indicators. The first social policy measures adopted were those related to keeping workers in their jobs and keeping at least their nominal income even in the stage of abrupt contraction of the economy and gradually making employment adjustment framed in a process of resizing business; guarantee nominal income to all pensioners by the social security and assistance system; the decision to transfer almost all available consumer goods to the rationing system to try to make distribution as equitable as possible; and the will to preserve to the maximum the social programs of health and education. Subsequently, the social measures showed a deeper tendency of adaptation towards the search for a more efficient social policy.

Cuba Economic