From the People’s Republic of Tito to the Disintegration of Yugoslavia Part II

By | January 17, 2022

In its foreign policy in the 1960s, Yugoslavia initially placed greater emphasis on the states of the Eastern Bloc and the Third World. It sharply criticized the US military engagement in Vietnam and Israel’s policy in the Middle East conflict. However, the invasion of Czechoslovakia by Warsaw Pact troops (August 1968) temporarily led to severe tensions with the USSR; Tito turned against the Brezhnev doctrine.

According to best-medical-schools, with the constitution of February 21, 1974, self-government and federalism were to be further expanded by weakening the central office (including the principle of rotation in appointments to offices); The BdKJ was accorded central balancing importance. In the end, however, the constitution strengthened the inherent weight of the republics and thus led to a new polycentrism of the republic. After Tito’s death(May 4, 1980), who embodied the unity and independence of the multi-ethnic state of Yugoslavia, changed both the chairmanship of the Presidium of the Republic and the chairmanship of the BdKJ annually. Despite participation in the international détente and disarmament discussion (participation in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and its follow-up conferences) and in the movement of the non-aligned states, Yugoslavia’s international weight declined after 1980. Domestically, the state increasingly had to struggle with rising inflation, rising unemployment and high foreign debts. The principle of workers’ self-management, after the first climaxes of the crisis even before 1980, revealed more and more clearly in practical implementation the difficulty to bring the interests of the companies and the requirements of the central planning in line. The nationality conflict in Kosovo, which has been smoldering since 1981 (90% of the population is Albanians), has intensified considerably since 1986/87. The Serbian Communist Party leader (since May 1986) S. Milošević, advised by B. Jović (inter alia Chairman of the Yugoslav State Presidency in 1991), succeeded on the basis of a memorandum published in September 1986 by the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts on the “national and cultural integrity of the Serbian people” (co-author et al. D. Cosić) and by eliminating his internal party opponents (1988/89; especially the Serbian President Ivan Stambolić, the Communist Party heads of Kosovo and Vojvodina) to use the tensions since April 1987 to heat up Serbian nationalism in Kosovo, which led to the constitutional crisis, then to the factual (through the adoption of a new Serbian constitution on March 28, 1989) and formal Abolition of autonomy in Kosovo and Vojvodina (July 1990). Organized Serbian nationalism also strengthened in Vojvodina and in Serbia and Montenegro as a whole (since mid-1988; first early high point: Serbian rally on the 600th anniversary of the Battle of the Blackbird Field, June 28, 1989); his goal was the rebuilding of Yugoslavia under even clearer Serbian hegemony. In the following years, however, the national passions and thus the disintegrative forces in the other republics were awakened and strengthened. Branko Mikulić (* 1928, † 1994) caused; the new Prime Minister, the Croat Ante Marković (* 1924), the intended economic restructuring on the basis of a market economy (including abolition of the self-administration of businesses) only partially succeeded. The reform course (market economy, pluralistic democracy) of the economically most developed sub-republics of Slovenia and Croatia, which in 1988/89 led to the split of the BdKJ (final January / February 1990), in 1989/90 to the increased national independence of the two sub-republics (including constitutional amendment in Slovenia from September 27, 1989), was v. a. fought by Serbia, the republic of the numerically strongest nationality in Yugoslavia. Politically and militarily, v. a. the increasingly independent Federal Army (JVA) and the Yugoslav state presidency, both dominated by Serbia, oppose the process of dissolution. In the course of the free elections held in all member states in 1989/90, however, the national centrifugal forces strengthened through the victory of national-bourgeois parties or coalitions (except in Serbia and Montenegro). While the Republic of Serbia is under Milošević (president since May 1989) tried to adhere to the existing constitution, v. a. Slovenia (since 1986 under KP leader, from April 1990 President M. Kučan) and Croatia (from May 1990 President F. Tudjman) a constitutional reform in the sense of the constitution of a confederation. After growing tensions between the six constituent republics, declarations of autonomy by the Serbian and other nationalities in the republics as well as several unsuccessful inner-Yugoslavian crisis summits, Slovenia and Croatia declared their full national existence (June 25, 1991; later suspended under EC mediation until October 7, 1991; internationally recognized since January 15, 1992). This initiated the inevitable dissolution of Yugoslavia into (later) five successor states: On October 15, 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina also declared its sovereignty (proclamation of independence on March 3, 1992), and on November 19, 1991, Macedonia (based on a referendum on March 8, 1992). 9.1991; internationally recognized only in April 1993 due to Greek objection). S. Mesić , and Prime Minister Marković resigned on December 22, 1991. The state of Yugoslavia in its form established in 1945/46 had finally perished.

Serbian Ore Mountains

Serbian Erzgebirge, Serbian Srpsko rudogorje [ srpsk ɔ ː -], strongly structured mountains in the east of Serbia between Morava in the west, the Danube in the north, the river valley of the Timok of Rhodopegebirges in the south, geologically and tectonically the south to the east and the foothills Continuation of the Carpathian Arc.

The highest mountain is the Rtanj (1,560 m above sea level), in the south strongly karstified limestone plateaus; mostly wooded (especially beeches). The ore wealth is linked to Andesite zones, quartz and pyrite veins of the geological fracture zones. In addition to copper ore (around Bor and Majdanpek), lead, iron ore and gold are also mined. The Sokobanja spa is located at the southern foot of the Rtanj.

People's Republic of Tito 2