The organization of vocational schools lacks tradition because these schools are of recent date; it lacks uniformity because they have to adapt to the extremely variable conditions and needs of individual places, and lacks stability because of the incessant technical progress, especially in the field of industry and agriculture. So it is that to these schools, to ensure their elasticity and adaptability of order, the law has given administrative autonomy and, within certain boundaries, didactic, by creating for each of them a special consortium which includes local representatives of commercial interests. , industrial and agricultural workers enabled, in this way, to contribute to the increase of the school with the council and with the money. These consortia work for now only in a few provinces.
On the edge of vocational education are the secondary vocational schools , established in 1928, for the transformation of the vocational training schools, the supplementary courses (6th, 7th and 8th elementary class) and the complementary school in which in 1923 the old technical school had changed. There are 486 three-year professional training schools. They have different addresses: agricultural (69), commercial (238), industrial (162), female vocational schools (17). It is taught by graduated professors and elementary teachers in literary and scientific subjects, drawing, calligraphy and computer science, as well as elementary teachings of some of the technical subjects specific to each address.
Agricultural education . – The first agricultural middle school dates back to 1876 (Conegliano); the first organic law of 1885 (6 June, no.3141), but the general reorganization was in 1923 (r. decr. 30 December, no.3214), the year in which the existing schools were reduced, transforming them on the basis of these criteria: 1. assign to the agricultural middle schools the task of preparing the managers of medium-sized rural or industrial-agricultural companies, the subordinates of large companies and finally the experts and technicians of the agricultural propaganda and education institutes; 2. give each school a sphere of action corresponding to the agricultural district; 3. equip each school with a farm; 4. make specialization the complement of agricultural education. Now the middle agricultural teaching is given: a) from middle agricultural schools (direct and equalized); b ) from practical schools of agriculture, consortium members; c ) from various institutes having, for the most part, the nature of foundations.
- a) At every middle agricultural school a boarding school is attached; the course of study is three years. There are 23 royal schools, 9 of which are specialized (in viticulture and oenology; pomology, horticulture and gardening; olive growing and oil mill; livestock and dairy farming; mountain economy); the equalized are 2. They issue the diploma of agricultural expert, which is valid for the free profession and for the admission to higher institutes of agriculture after a general culture exam. These schools can be accessed either without an admission exam by those who have completed 4 years of lower middle school (lower course of the technical or magistral institute, 4th secondary school) or with an exam by those who have a license from both a practical school of agriculture and from secondary school of vocational training. General and technical culture teachings are common to all schools.
- b) The course of study of the practical schools of agriculture is three years; the boarding school is attached to the school. These schools are 11 throughout Italy. They issue a license. It can be accessed without an examination by a child aged at least 13 who has completed elementary school or obtained admission to secondary school. The teaching subjects vary from school to school, but the group of subjects of general culture is common to all. Great importance is given to the exercises.
- c) Of the various institutes, 16 are assimilated to practical schools, 14 are of various kinds; 5 welcome only pupils.
Business education . – For many years commercial education was given in Italy by the technical institute. The first medium commercial institute dates back to 1902 (Rome), but soon other schools arose of the same type, to which a first order was given by the law of 30 July 1907, n. 414. Reorganized in 1912 (law 14 July, n. 854) they had an organic structure from the r. decr-law 7 May 1924, n. 749 which underwent modifications in 1929 (law 7 January, no. 8). Commercial education is now given in schools and institutes.
Business schools are biennial; their purpose is to prepare pupils to do business on their own account or to become agents and employees of commercial houses. They issue the title of commercial accountant. It can be accessed without an exam with the license from the vocational training school or, through an exam, by anyone who has obtained admission to lower middle school 3 years before. It teaches general and specific culture subjects, as well as 2 foreign languages. There are 13 directing schools, of which 2 with special programs; the draws are 10; another 5 schools, neither directed nor matched, are exam centers.
Commercial institutes they are five-year (including a preparatory year) and have the purpose of imparting a theoretical and practical culture sufficient to cover management and control offices in commercial companies. They issue the title of accountant and commercial expert, which is valid for the exercise of the profession and for admission to higher institutes of commerce. Students are admitted to the preparatory year with the same qualifications or exams as to the commercial school and also with the promotion from the 3rd to the 4th class of both the secondary school and the lower technical or master’s course; to the 1st normal year, with promotion from the preparatory year, with a commercial school license or through an entrance exam by those who have obtained admission to lower secondary school 4 years before. It teaches general culture and professional subjects. There are 24 royal institutes; there are also 6 equalized institutes and 3 declared exam sites.
Nautical education. – The first uniform organization of the nautical schools inherited from the ancient states dates back to 1865 (r. Decr. 16 October, n. 1712); in 1866 teaching was divided into two grades (nautical schools and royal institutes); in 1873 a differentiation of studies was established for the achievement of the various titles (captain of great cabotage and of long course, driver in 2nd and 1st, builder in 2nd and 1st). In 1891 the admission qualification was raised which was no longer the elementary license but the license from a three-year preparatory course, which was soon replaced by the technical license. In 1917 the nautical institutes passed from the Ministry of Public Education to that of the Navy became three-year, four-year. In 1923 (r. Decr. 21 October, n. 2557) the studies were coordinated as far as possible with those of the middle schools: the number of institutes was reduced (and in these that of students), the license exams were made compulsory, admission to the higher course of the technical or magistral institute or to high school is prescribed as an admission title; the teachers of the special subjects were trained by giving a new suitable structure to the royal naval institute of Naples. In 1928 the nautical institutes were again placed under the authority of the Ministry of National Education; in the same year for the practical training of those fired from the captains section, a shipping company was created (Nazario Sauro) which was entrusted with the management of a training ship (Homeland ). The course lasts from 12 to 18 months. The royal nautical institutes are 17 (four-year); 3 of them have all three sections: captains, machinists, builders; 4 have only the captains section; the others, the captains and machinists sections. The license is also valid for admission to the naval college of Naples.
Industrial education . – The schools of art and trades, which in 1861 were 10, in 1869 had risen to 154, in vain order. A first order was attempted in 1877, then there were individual measures and finally the organic law of 1907 (June 30, no.44), and the more important one of 1912 (July 14, no. 854) which provided schools with major funds and distinguished them in 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade schools. New impetus to this branch of education was given in May 1917 and immediately after the war, but the fundamental law in force is the r. decr. 31 October 1923, n. 2523. For it, industrial education is given not only by the secondary vocational schools (see above), but also by the following schools: courses for workers (complementary courses) with compulsory attendance attached to the internship schools; laboratorî – school for the preparation of labor for which less culture is required; there are 26 in addition to those attached to vocational training schools; industrial schools and industrial institutes which both have the purpose of providing that training that the apprentice once did in the shops and workshops and to prepare for the exercise of a profession or as a qualified worker or as a master of art. The industrial schools are three-year or four-year and are made up of one or more sections, each aimed at a different art or craft. There are 13-year-old children enrolled, without an exam if they have a license from a complementary school or professional start-up, with an exam if they have completed 3 years of middle school. At the end of the course, license exam; the dismissed are allowed to take a qualification exam for skilled worker. Of the industrial schools 41 are direct and 10 free, recognized as examination centers; there are also 10 short-time (evening) training schools. The industrial institutes run for five years and are made up of one or more sections according to the different specialties. The same rules apply for admission as for internship schools; Licensed are admitted to take the industrial expert qualification exam. Of these institutes 21 are royal, 6 free (recognized as examination centers).
There are also 8 direct and 4 free vocational schools for women with different purposes and very variously ordered. Also part of this branch of education are the 4 royal mining schools (reorganized with decree no. 2800 of 15 December 1927), four-year, for the qualification to exercise the profession of chief miner and mining expert.