Rome, Italy Cityscape Part II

By | January 3, 2022

Renaissance: After the destruction of the medieval papal palace on the Lateran (1308), the permanent residence of the popes who returned in 1378 was moved to the Vatican. Nicholas V (1447–55) decided to renovate St. Peter’s Church in Constantine, which was threatened with collapse, and to expand the Vatican.

According to ehotelat, the city was decorated with new churches and palaces (Palazzo Venezia, Palazzo della Cancelleria, Santa Maria del Popolo, Sant’Agostino, Santa Maria della Pace and others). Julius II. (1503-13) gave Bramante the order to build the new St. Peter’s Church and to design the Cortile del Belvedere. Michelangelo created the ceiling paintings in the Sistine Chapel, Raphael painted the rooms and loggias in the Vatican. In addition to Raffael and Bramante, A. da Sangallo the Younger (Capella Paolina in the Vatican; completion of the Villa Madama), B. Ammanati (Collegio Romano) and B. Peruzzi (new building of the Palazzo Massimo alle Colonne and the Villa Farnesina); Michelangelo gave the Palazzo Farnese, begunby A. da Sangallo the Younger,its monumental character. Pope Paul III also entrusted him with fresco work (Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel), the redesign of the Capitol Square and the construction management of St. Peter’s Church, for which he designed the dome. TheJesuit church Il Gesù, begun in1568 by G. da Vignola, was continued by G. Della Porta, who also completed the dome of St. Peter’s Church and the Palazzo Farnese. The urban planning by Sixtus V (1585–90) was carried out by D. Fontanaby connecting the main churches of Rome by straight streets; he also erected an Egyptian obelisk in St. Peter’s Square and built the Lateran Palace.

Baroque and classicism: at the beginning of the 17th century, Paul V (1605–21) commissioned the builder C. Maderno, who created the prototype of the baroque facade on Santa Susanna, to complete the new building of St. Peter’s Church. At the same time he had the Villa Borghese expanded (1613-16). In the course of the century, the cityscape was shaped in baroque style. The outstanding artists are G. L. Bernini (including the colonnades of St. Peter’s Square), F. Borromini (including San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane), Pietro da Cortona (ceiling in the Palazzo Barberini). The Piazza Navona found with the Palazzo Pamphili, the Church of Sant’Agnese in Agone and the three fountains by Bernini, Borromini and Rainaldi her present form. Numerous other palaces were built (including Palazzo Montecitorio, designed by Bernini) or expanded (e.g. the facade of Palazzo Madama; Palazzo del Quirinale, with the help of Maderno and Bernini), as well as magnificent churches (Sant’Ignazio, Sant’Andrea della Valle, Sant’Andrea al Quirinale, Sant’Ivo, Santi Luca e Martina).

In the 18th century, the construction of the Spanish Steps, the Fontana di Trevi (by N. Salvi), the facades of San Giovanni in Laterano and Santa Maria Maggiore, plazas (e.g. in front of Sant’Ignazio) and large palace buildings (Palazzo della Consulta, Villa Albani, completion of the Palazzo del Quirinale, Palazzo Corsini). The classicism of the 19th century manifests itself v. a. in the Piazza del Popolo redesigned by G. Valadier. The renewed interest in ancient art led to the exposure of the Roman Forum and other ancient monuments.

19th century, modern and present: After Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, the new administration built the streets of Via del Tritone and Corso Vittorio Emanuele through the city center; the Palace of Justice on the Tiber was built, and the national monument to Victor Emmanuel II was erected in Piazza Venezia .

Between the world wars, Mussolini had Via della Conciliazione (M. Piacentini) rebuilt through the Borgo (between St. Other facilities that began under fascism are the Foro Italico, the university campus (buildings by Piacentini, G. Ponti, Giovanni Michelucci, * 1891, † 1990, etc.) and the main train station. After the Second World War, an internationally trend-setting project was completed with the main wing and the reception hall of the main train station (Stazione Termini). On the site of the Esposizione Universale di Roma (EUR) planned for 1942, a modern administration and congress center was built after 1945 in addition to the fascist buildings (e.g. Palazzo della Civiltà del Lavoro). In 1960, sports facilities (e.g. the Palazzetto and the Palazzo dello Sport by P. L. Nervi) were built on the EUR site and in the north of the city on the Ponte Flaminio for the Summer Olympics. The Banca Popolare di Milano (1973) and the residential buildings of San Maurizio (1962) and Il Girasole (1949–50) are among the architecturally significant buildings of this time Luigi Moretti (* 1907, † 1976) and the department store La Rinascente (1958–61) by F. Albini. 1966–71 P. L. Nervi built the audience hall in the Vatican, from 1976 onwards P. Portoghesi et al. the mosque and the Islamic center were built.

On the occasion of the holy year (2000), restoration measures were increasingly carried out on numerous buildings (including the Colosseum, Conservator’s Palace). New designs and redesigns of inner-city areas as well as numerous new buildings continue to change the cityscape: inter alia. Concert hall complex Auditorium “Città della musica” by R. Piano (opened in 2002); Redesign of the former field of Mars (international architectural competition); Churches “Dives in Misericordia” (inaugurated in 2003) and “Chiesa del Giubileo” (inaugurated in 2004) as well as the Augustus Museum (opened in 2006; with the Ara Pacis Augustae in the center) by R. Meier; a National Center for Contemporary Art (Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo, MAXXI) by Zaha Hadid (2009); a gallery for modern and contemporary art by Odile Decq (2001 ff., conversion of a former brewery); a new congress center by Massimiliano Fuksas on the premises of the EUR (2011). – The historic city center, San Paolo fuori le mura and the Vatican City have been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO (Rome [World Heritage]).

Rome, Italy Cityscape Part II