Rome, Italian Roma, capital of Italy, in the Lazio region, on the lower reaches of the Tiber, (2019) 2.85 million residents.
According to smber, Rome is the political and cultural center of Italy, and at the same time as the seat of the Pope in Vatican City, it is also the center of the Catholic world. The city is 13-138 m above sea level, on the southern foothills of the volcanic hill country of Latium, in the Campagna Romana, about 40 km before the confluence of the Tiber, which is navigable up to this point, into the Tyrrhenian Sea (approx. 20 km from the Coast).
The city comprises 15 municipalities with 1,285 km 2. The narrower urban area is divided into 22 inner city quarters (»rioni«, without administrative tasks), 35 outer city quarters (»quartieri«) and six suburbs (»suburbi«). The old town is located at a narrow point in the winding Tiber Valley, mostly to the left of the river.
The newer population development is determined by the capital function since 1871. The population increased from (1871) 212,400 to (1901) 422,400, (1931) 930,900, (1961) 2.188 million, (1991) 2.775 million, mainly due to immigration from other parts of the country, especially from southern Italy. Since then, the number of residents has stagnated, especially in the city center and especially in the historic center, it is even declining. A high proportion of older residents, changes in ownership and building use, a decrease in apartments and craft businesses, an increase in offices, specialty shops, and small apartments are characteristic. Local recreation areas for the urban population are the Alban Hills, Tivoli and the bathing beaches on the nearby Tyrrhenian coast (Lido di Roma). Settlements for social housing emerged on the periphery,
The municipal tasks that have arisen with the growth of the population and traffic represent a great challenge and have not always been adequately managed so far.
Administrative and cultural institutions
The President, Senate and Italian government have their seat in Rome, as do all ministries, important state authorities (administrative seat of the Lazio region and the Città metropolitana Roma), embassies and consulates, the state radio and television companies.
The university (“La Sapienza”), founded in 1303, occupies its own district (Città Universitaria) east of the main train station; With around 147,000 students, it is one of the largest universities in Europe. There are also three other state universities (Tor Vergata, founded in 1985; Roma Tre, founded in 1992; Foro Italico Sports University, founded in 1998), the private American university (founded in 1969) and universities of medicine, business and commerce, music (Accademia di Santa Cecilia), visual arts, dramatic arts and dance, and papal universities (especially the Gregorian), among others. papal institutions (colleges, institutes, academies); there are also diplomatic, fashion, hotel and many other technical schools.
Famous academies and societies or institute departments have their headquarters in Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Accademia Nazionale di San Luca (with gallery), Central Institute for Restoration, École Française (founded 1875; for history and archeology), German Archaeological Institute, German Historical Institute, Goethe-Institut, Austrian and Swiss cultural institute, Villa Massimo and others The National Research Council (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche) meets in Rome. The International Agricultural Institute, founded in 1905 and home to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), is just one of many important international authorities. Several large specialist libraries, including the National Library with over 7 million media units, the Vatican Library and the State Archives.
Museums: Rome has numerous museums and galleries. The largest collections of antiquities are owned by the Vatican (Vatican Collections), the Capitoline Museums, the Conservator’s Palace and the Thermenmuseum (Museo Nazionale Romano; parts of the collections in the Palazzo Altemps, the Palazzo Massimo and the Stazione Montemartini), as well as the National Museum of Etruscan Antiquities in the Villa Giulia, the Museo Barracco (mainly Greek and Etruscan art), the Collezione Archeologica of Villa Albani and the Museum of the Imperial Forums. The Vatican, Galleria Borghese in the Villa Borghese owns the most important painting collections(Restored 1984–97), Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica in Palazzo Barberini (especially Italian paintings from the 13th to 16th centuries) and Palazzo Corsini (paintings from the 17th and 18th centuries), Capitoline Museums, the Colonna, Doria galleries Pamphili, Aurora Pallavicini, Spada and the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna (painting and sculpture of the 19th and 20th centuries). The Museo nazionale delle arti del XXI secolo (MAXXI; architect Zaha Mohammad Hadid ), completed in 2009, presents art of the 21st century. In addition to the art museums, there are many humanities and natural science collections such as the Museo Preistorico ed Etnografico Pigorini and the Museo di Geologia.
Around three quarters of those in employment are employed in the service sector, one third of them in the public sector. Of the more than 7 million visitors (tourists, scientists, pilgrims, business people, etc.) each year, around half come from abroad. Fashion studios and studios of the film industry (Cinecittà) contribute to the reputation of the glamorous cosmopolitan city of Rome. Banks and insurance companies, chambers of commerce and the stock exchange underline the importance of Rome as a trading center, as do a number of international trade fairs. Industry also plays an important role (almost a fifth of employees). Rome is the third largest industrial city in Italy after Milan and Turin. Leading industries are mechanical engineering, graphics, IT, electronics, plastics, clothing, wood, food and chemical industries (petroleum refining).
Rome is the main railway junction in Italy. It is also roughly in the middle of the motorway (Autostrada del Sole) that runs through the entire peninsula from north to south. With the international Aeroporto Leonardo da Vinci in Fiumicino, about 40 km southwest of the city, Rome has a world airport. Another international airport is located in Ciampino, 15 km southeast of Rome. In addition to Civitavecchia, Fiumicino and Anzio also serve as seaports. There are three underground lines in Rome: Line A connects the districts of Anagnina (in the southeast of the city) and Battistini (in the west), Line B runs from the southern district of Laurentina to Conca d`Oro or to Rebibbia in the northwest of the city. The center of both routes is Ternimi Central Station. Another metro line (line C), which mainly connects the eastern districts with the city center, was opened in 2014/15. A further expansion of the route network is difficult due to the many archaeological remains underground.