Turin, Italian Torino, capital of the Città metropolitana Turin and the Piedmont region, Italy, 239 m above sea level, at the confluence of the Dora Riparia in the Po, (2019) 875 700 residents.
Fourth largest city and second largest industrial and commercial center in Italy after Milan; Archbishopric; University (founded in 1404), polytechnic university, academy of sciences, scientific institutes, music academy, art academy, European foundation for vocational training, museums and galleries (including natural science collections and automobile museum), libraries, several theaters, opera, botanical and zoological gardens, numerous sports facilities, Car racing track.
Economy: The early industrial development thanks to hydropower plants on the Dora Riparia (arms factories, tobacco manufacture) followed with Fiat S. p. A. (since 1899) and Lancia (since 1906, since 1969 part of the Fiat concern) the auto industry (today the largest in Italy). Thanks to other large industries, Turin has the largest concentration of workers in Italy; Steel works and aircraft construction, electronic and electrotechnical, mechanical, precision engineering, agricultural machinery, car tires, chemical, pharmaceutical, clothing, food and luxury goods industries; major international trade fairs (including clothing trade fair); international Airport. The port for Turin is Savona. – Turin was the site of the World Exhibition in 1911 and the venue for the XX. Olympic Winter Games.
According to findjobdescriptions, the city spreads out on the flat left side of the Po, opposite the hill country of Monteferrato, which comes close to the river, with the isolated Monte dei Cappuccini (284 m above sea level, with Capuchin monastery). On the right bank are the suburbs of Cavoretto, Rubatto and Borgo Po. The straight, right-angled streets of the Roman city (the remains of the amphitheater and the restored Porta Palatina, both 1st century AD) remained decisive for the later city layout. Only a few buildings from the Middle Ages and Renaissance have survived (including the Cathedral of San Giovanni Battista, 1491–98).
With the expansion of the city since the 17th century, uniformly built rows of houses (some with arcades) were laid out; In contrast to this are the churches and palaces of the Baroque, especially in the center around the Piazza Castello and the adjacent Piazza Reale to the north: Palazzo Madama (also Castello d’Acaja, originally a Roman gate, in the Middle Ages fort, extensions 1718-21 with Façade and staircase by F. Juvarra; today Museo Civico), Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace, begun in 1646; with state rooms, armory and library; badly damaged in a fire in 1997) and the two by G. Guarini built palaces Palazzo Carignano (1679–85, Museo Nazionale del Risorgimento) and Collegio dei Nobili (also Palazzo dell’Accademia delle Scienze, 1679; with archaeological museum, Egyptian museum and the picture gallery “Sabauda”). The central building of San Lorenzo (since 1634) was rebuilt by Guarini around 1668–80 (completed in 1687), the Cappella della Santa Sindone (containing the Turin Shroud) built onto the cathedral was completed according to his designs in 1694, and the Santuario della based on Guarini’s designs Consolata (1678–1703; interior by F. Juvarra, 1714; modified 1903/04); also from Juvarra: Santa Maria del Carmine (1732–36) and the basilica on a hill above the city Superga.
The arcaded Piazza San Carlo (17th century complex) is flanked to the south by two small baroque churches, San Carlo and Santa Cristina. The city’s landmark is the Mole Antonelliana (begun in 1863), a late Classicist central building, planned by Alessandro Antonelli (* 1798, † 1888) as a synagogue, expanded from 1878-90 like a tower (167 m high), it has housed a film museum since 1997. The Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna was built in 1952.
In the south of the city there is a large park on the Po with the Castello del Valentino (mid-17th century), the botanical garden (founded in 1729) and the exhibition area (with buildings by P. L. Nervi and others). In an industrial suburb, the FIAT Lingotto plant, built in 1919-26, shut down in 1982 and converted into a culture and science center by Renzo Piano in 1989 ff. Numerous renovations and new buildings by internationally renowned architects were created on the occasion of the 2006 Winter Olympics (including the Olympic Village).
The former Benedictine Abbey of Sacra di San Michele and the Stupinigi Castle are in the vicinity of Turin. The Savoy residences in Turin and its surroundings have been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Taurasia, capital of the Ligurian or Celtic Taurines, 218 BC. Destroyed by Hannibal in the 2nd century BC, Augusta Taurinorum became a Roman colony under Augustus newly founded (after 25 BC). In the 6th century the place became the center of a Lombard duchy, then a Frankish county, in the 10th century the margraviate of Turin (until the end of the 11th century). In the 12th century local government, empire, the bishops and the counts of Savoy were decisive power factors in Turin; The latter finally consolidated their rule in 1280 and, having risen to dukes in 1416, made Turin the center of government in Piedmont in the 15th century, and in 1560 – after French occupation 1536-59 – the capital of the Duchy of Savoy. Turin, besieged by the French in the War of the Spanish Succession, was conquered on September 7, 1706 by Prince Eugene and Prince Leopold freed from Anhalt-Dessau. After the Napoleonic period, Turin became the center of the Risorgimento; 1861–65 it was the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.